Interesting Place Names in The Domesday Book

In the past, I compiled three lists regarding female names, male names, and nicknames from the Domesday Book. Today’s list will be of place names. There are a lot of amusing town/village names. I figured I would share some I find particularly interesting for no real reason or logic as to why I find them interesting. I just do. Like my other name lists, this one will be added to in the future.

Abbotsbury

Boscombe

Broadclyst

Crowland

Culverthorpe

Fittleton

Fobbing

Huntspill

Littleton Drew

Much Wenlock

Norton Bavant

Pershore

Poynings

Shaftesbury

Sompting

St Benet of Hulme

Tavistock

West Ham

Wimbish

Wootton Bassett

Worthy

Yalding

Source:

‘Domesday’, Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England, http://www.pase.ac.uk.

Muckross Abbey, Spring 2018 Photos, Part 1

I visited the Muckross Abbey ruins in spring 2018. Muckross Abbey is located in County Kerry, Ireland. On my Instagram @the_mediaeval_monk, some of my followers expressed interest in seeing my old photos of the abbey’s ruins.

I’m splitting the photos up into several blog posts. This is so people can admire Muckross Abbey’s beauty without feeling overwhelmed by the sheer amount of photos in each blog post. (I know I get overwhelmed when I see very big photo dumps! Surely other people are the same, right?)

A Brief History of Muckross Abbey

According to the Killarney National Park website, Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 by Daniel McCarthy Mor. It was a Franciscan friary. People have been buried in Muckross Abbey’s cemetery for centuries. The cemetery holds Irish chieftains, poets, and local residents. As you’ll see from the photos below, it’s no wonder people want to be buried in such a gorgeous place!


The Ruins of Muckross Abbey from a distance
The Ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) from a distance | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
The ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) from a distance. Also some water. Maybe a pond. (Or was it a stream?) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
Part of Muckross Abbey’s (Co. Kerry, Ireland) ruins. Note the window frame | | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) ruins | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
An old (?) gravestone at Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) ruins. I’m not sure what it says. Comment if you can read it, as I’d love to know who this belongs to | | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) ruins. I took the photo at a funny angle because at the time I felt like it lol. Also with this angle, I was able to capture more in the photo. | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
The ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
The ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
A Memorial in the ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
The ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
A grave at the ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
A tiny slit window looking out into greenery at the ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
The ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
Graves at the ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018
The ruins of Muckross Abbey (Co. Kerry, Ireland) | Source: Viktor Athelstan 2018

Works Cited:

“Muckross Abbey.” Killarney National Park. Accessed April 18, 2022. https://www.killarneynationalpark.ie/visit-us/muckross-abbey/.

Medieval Clerical Celibacy, Part 2: The Religious and Financial Reasons for Chaste Priests

Celibacy was not always a requirement for Catholic priests. From Christianity’s beginnings to the 12th century, clerical wives and families were quite common. However, that didn’t mean the Church didn’t attempt to enforce clerical celibacy. They did. And they tried to do it a lot. You can read my first post about the Church’s attempts to enforce clerical celibacy here

This begs the question, why enforce clerical celibacy in the first place?

A priest baptizing a baby while the mother watches | Ms. 46 (92.MK.92), fol. 41v | Source: The Getty Museum

Why Did Medieval Catholic Reformers Want Priests to Take a Vow of Celibacy?

Like most questions about why people want anything, the answer isn’t a simple one. Reformers had a few reasons for enforcing clerical celibacy. Today’s post will focus on the religious and financial reasons reformers had when advocating for clerical celibacy. 

Religious Reasons For Clerical Celibacy

One argument for clerical celibacy was that priests needed to be pure to uphold sacramental purity. Priests performed holy rituals and held holy items. The only way to maintain that the sacraments had the ritual purity they deserved was to make sure the person performing them was pure as well. Sex is unclean and impure, thus, priests should not have sex. 

Now, I’m sure some readers are indigent about the idea of sex being dirty. Well, sexual uncleanliness isn’t just a ritualistic concept. Practically speaking, it’s reality. There are fluids involved. Would you really want to receive communion from someone who just had sex and possibly didn’t wash their hands that well afterward? 

As clerical marriage was a reality for the first thousand or so years of Christianity, there were practical rules in place to ensure ritual purity. When a priest had sex, he needed to wait a certain amount of time before he could perform sacraments, touch the Eucharist, etc. If he did have sex within the allotted time frame that allowed him to regain his ritual purity, he had to find another priest to say mass for him. 

Medieval priests were on call 24/7, so reformers argued they should be celibate all the time. That way a priest wasn’t scrambling to find someone else to perform Last Rites at 3am because a parishioner is dying and the priest and his partner were having a bit of fun before he received the news someone needed him.

Another religious reason for clerical celibacy was from a moral standpoint. I don’t mean moral in a “sex is bad” way. I mean moral from a “once sex is involved, there’s a greater chance of vile acts occurring.” Reformers were aware priests had a lot of power over their parishioners. Even if a relationship is between two consenting adults, power dynamics make things extremely complicated at best and disgustingly immoral at worst.

(Also we’re talking about the Catholic Church. You know, the institution that’s infamous for the copious amount of sexual abuse cases (some ongoing) that have happened over its 2000 year history. (As a side note, I know some people claim that clerical celibacy causes sexual abuse. To that I say, the average person doesn’t prey on children when they haven’t had sex in a while. I’m extremely suspicious of anyone who says otherwise.))

Financial Reasons For Clerical Celibacy

Sacramental purity wasn’t the only reason for clerical celibacy. Like with most rules people make, money is usually a factor. And clerical celibacy was no different.

Generally speaking, when a man and a woman marry (or are just not celibate with each other) there’s a good chance of babies happening. In an era with not super reliable birth control (though it did exist) babies happened a lot. 

That, combined with the fact medieval masculinity depended on how many children you had and the Christian view married couples should only have sex to conceive a child (Note: in theory, medieval Christians followed this. In practice they didn’t.), meant some priests had a lot of children. 

Babies are expensive. 

And so is educating children and finding good dowries and making sure your children can financially support themselves as adults. For medieval clerical sons, the priesthood was a family business. Priests, especially ones in positions of power such as bishops and archbishops, sought to make sure their sons inherited their prebends and benefices.

In short, priests used Church money to support their families. Reformers did not like this.

Reformers also did not particularly like priests spending lots of Church money on their wives/concubines/girlfriends. They claimed priests “create public spectacles by taking their women, decked out lavishly in fine clothing and jewels, to weddings and to church” (Thibodeaux 30). 

(Of course, the extent of how bad this supposed “lavishing” was could very well have been exaggerated by reformers in certain situations. I’m sure some priests spent too much money buying their partners nice gifts and I’m also sure other priests could have put in a bit more effort making sure their partners had something nicer than what they currently own. In situations like these, there wouldn’t be one absolute that applied to every single English/Norman Catholic priest from the beginning of Christianity to when priests actually started following the reforms.)

By lavishing their special lady friends with expensive things, reformers thought priests were paying more attention and in a sense worshiping women more than the church they were supposed to serve. I will go more into the medieval gender implications for priests “serving” women in my next blog post where I’ll discuss the gender-based reasons for and against clerical celibacy. 

Source:

Thibodeaux, Jennifer D. The Manly Priest Clerical Celibacy, Masculinity, and Reform in England and Normandy, 1066-1300. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

Medieval Clerical Celibacy, Part 1: The Start, Hypocrisy, and Attempts at Reform

NOTE: This post is shorter and a bit sillier in tone than what I normally write.

In my last post, I discussed monastic masculinity versus secular masculinity. To summarize, monastic masculinity was basically the Church’s way of saying “being celibate is cool and masculine you guys, we swear!!!”

For centuries, convincing secular priests celibacy was super cool, holy, desirable, and something they should start doing right this second was a losing battle. So how exactly did the Catholic Church convince their priests to embrace celibacy? To fully understand the process, we have to start at the beginning of Christianity.

A Priest Celebrating Mass | Ms. Ludwig IX 5 (83.ML.101), fol. 171 | Source: The Getty Museum

Clerical Celibacy’s Beginnings

From the beginning of Christianity, secular priests (meaning they weren’t monks so they didn’t take a vow of chastity) could and often did get married. The third century Church suggested priests should be chaste. After all, priests handled the Eucharist. It wasn’t exactly a good look to touch something so holy with unclean hands. However, in the third century clerical celibacy was more of a suggestion than a mandate.

Then in the fourth century, the Council of Elvira occurred. The Council of Elvira is notable as it was the first time the Church mandated clerical celibacy. As it was a local council, it didn’t have widespread authority. It had some influence because other councils/synods started mandating clerical celibacy too.

Between the fourth and tenth centuries, many more local councils mandated clerical celibacy. So there was some effort to stop clerical marriage. However, a lot of the rules came from local councils/synods so they didn’t have widespread authority. 

Based on the number of times the church made the rule “priests can’t marry” it’s pretty obvious that a majority of priests went “how about we do anyway?” It didn’t help that a lot of the Church’s efforts to actually enforce the no marriage rules were pretty lackluster. (Think Willy Wonka going “no. Stop. Come back.”) 

The Hypocrisy of Enforcing Clerical Celibacy

So why didn’t the Church enforce all the rules they made?

One reason was that many bishops and archbishops (AKA the people who enforced rules) were married. Clerical celibacy was already an unpopular reform. If you want people to follow an unpopular rule and you break that rule, people won’t follow it. After all, if it’s okay for the bishops and archbishops to get married, why can’t priests?

The Church Gets Serious (Sort Of)

Things changed around the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Now Church became serious about enforcing clerical celibacy. This change was partially due to more monastic priests gaining higher positions in the church. 

Punishments for non-celibate priests included:

  • Fines
  • Excommunication 
  • Losing his benefice 

That being said, some reformers didn’t actually give priests punishments. Married priests could go years with constant slaps on the wrist before they received a serious punishment.

Source:

Thibodeaux, Jennifer D. The Manly Priest Clerical Celibacy, Masculinity, and Reform in England and Normandy, 1066-1300. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

Medieval Monastic Masculinity vs. Medieval Secular Masculinity

NOTE: Due to personal reasons today’s blog post is shorter than normal. This is a topic I may revisit in the future.

When it came to image and public relations regarding masculinity, medieval monks knew they had a bit of a problem on their hands. See, monks were not exactly considered masculine by the secular population. The pinnacle of masculinity in early Medieval English and post-conquest secular culture was to be a good warrior and have lots of children.

Horsemen Meeting an Abbot and Two Monks at a Monastery | Ms. Ludwig XV 9 (83.MR.179), fol. 186v | Source: The Getty Museum

Monks on the other hand didn’t fight and didn’t have sex. (Well, theoretically. In reality plenty of monks got physical with others, whether it was through punching, stabbing, or other means.) 

Because monks were not supposed to do either of those things, they created a new type of masculinity for themselves. Medieval monastic masculinity valued self-control in all forms. Masculine monks were disciplined when it came to their gluttony, anger, ambition, and of course, lust. 

Celibacy meant you controlled your body, mind, and soul. However, when secular society values a man’s virility, saying chastity is definitely super manly is a hard sell. Monastic leaders developed a lot of arguments about the manliness of chastity. 

I think my favorite argument is that it’s feminine to have sex. And they weren’t just talking about same-sex copulation. Reformers tried to say that a man sleeping with a woman made him feminine too. (It definitely reminds me of the “Fellas Is It Gay?” meme!)

Source:

Thibodeaux, Jennifer D. The Manly Priest Clerical Celibacy, Masculinity, and Reform in England and Normandy, 1066-1300. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.